The job goes to Brent Dickson, who has been acting chief justice since Randall Shepard retired in March. Shepard had held the post for 25 years.
The 70 year old Dickson is the longest-serving member of the five-member court. He was appointed by Republican Governor Robert Orr in 1986.
Dickson will be leading a court in transition. It is expected this fall to get its third new justice in less than two years after no turnover for more than a decade.
He was appointed by the Indiana Judicial Nominating Commission during a Tuesday meeting at which some court members endorsed Dickson for the top job.
(Information for this story also came from the Associated Press)